Slaughter, David – Publications

Raja, R., Nguyen, T.T., Vuong, V.L., Slaughter, D.C., Fennimore, S.A., 2020.  RTD-SEPs: Real-time detection of stem emerging points and classification of crop-weed for robotic weed control in producing tomato.  . Biosystems Engineering. Vol. 195: 152-171.

Raja, R., Nguyen, T.T., Slaughter, D.C., Fennimore, S.A., 2020.  Real-time robotic weed knife control system for tomato and lettuce based on geometric appearance of plant labels.  . Biosystems Engineering. Vol. 194: 152-164.

Su, W-H, Fennimore, S.A., Slaughter, D.C.  2020. Development of a systemic crop signalling system for automated real-time plant care in vegetable crops.  Biosystems Engineering. Vol. 193: 62-74.

Raja, R., Nguyen, T.T., Slaughter, D.C., Fennimore, S.A., 2020.  Real-time weed-crop classification and localisation technique for robotic weed control in lettuce.  . Biosystems Engineering. Vol. 192: 257-274

Donis-Gonzalez, I.R., Sidelli, G., Bergman, S.M., Slaughter, D.C., Crisosto, C.H. 2020.  Color Vision System to Assess English Walnut (Juglans Regia) Kernel Pellicle Color.  Postharvest Biology and Technology.

Donis-Gonzalez, I.R., Valero, C., Momin, M.A., Kaur, A., Slaughter, D.C., 2020. Performance Evaluation of Two Commercially Available Portable Spectrometers to Non-Invasively Determine Table Grape and Peach Quality Attributes.  AGRONOMY-BASEL Vol. 10: DOI: 10.3390/agronomy10010148.

Su, W.H., Slaughter, D.C., Fennimore, S.A.  2020.  Non-destructive evaluation of photostability of crop signaling compounds and dose effects on celery vigor for precision plant identification using computer vision.  Computers and Electronics in Agriculture.  Vol. 168: DOI: 10.1016/j.compag.2019.105155.

Kennedy, H.  Fennimore, S.A., Slaughter, D.C., Nguyen, T.T., Vuong, V.L., Raja, R.,  Smith R.F., Crop Signal Markers Facilitate Crop Detection and Weed Removal from Lettuce and Tomato by an Intelligent Cultivator.  Weed Technology. DOI:

Raja, R., Slaughter, D.C., Fennimore, S.A., Nguyen, T.T., Vuong, V.L., Sinha, N., Tourte, L., Smith, R.F., Siemens, M.C., 2019.  Crop signalling: A novel crop recognition technique for robotic weed control. Biosystems Engineering. Vol 187: 278-291. DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2019.09.011.

Su, W-H, Fennimore, S.A., Slaughter, D.C.  2019. Fluorescence imaging for rapid monitoring of translocation behavior of systemic markers in snap beans for crop/weed discrimination.  Biosystems Engineering. Vol. 186: 156-167.

Anjom, F.K., Vougioukas, S.G., Slaughter, D.C. 2018. Development and Application of a Strawberry Yield-Monitoring Picking Cart. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture.  Volume: 155, Pages: 400-411, DOI: 10.1016/j.compag.2018.10.038.

Perez-Ruiz, M., Brenes, R., Urbano, JM., Slaughter, DC., Forcella, F., Rodriguez-Lizana, A. 2018. Agricultural residues are efficient abrasive tools for weed control. Agronomy For Sustainable Development. Volume: 38: 2 Article Number: 18 DOI: 10.1007/s13593-018-0494-6 Published: APR 2018

Jantra, C., Slaughter, DC,  Roach, J., Pathaveerat, S.  2018.  Development of a handheld precision penetrometer system for fruit firmness measurement. Postharvest Biology and Technology Vol. 144 Pages: 1-8 DOI: 10.1016/j.postharvbio.2018.05.009 Published: OCT 2018.

Westwood, J.H., R. Charudattan , S.O. Duke, S.A. Fennimore, P. Marrone, D.C. Slaughter, C. Swanton and R. Zollinger.  2018.  Weed Management in 2050: Perspectives on the Future of Weed Science.  Weed Science. Volume: 66   Issue: 3   Pages: 275-285   Published: MAY-JUN 2018

Durand-Petiteville, A., Vougioukas, S.  Slaughter, D.C. 2018.  Real-time segmentation of strawberry flesh and calyx from images of singulated strawberries during postharvest processing. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 142: 298-313. DOI: 10.1016/j.compag.2017.09.011

Anjom, F.K., Vougioukas, S.G., Slaughter, D.C. 2018. Development of a linear mixed model to predict the picking time in strawberry harvesting processes.  Biosystems Engineering 166: 76-89.  DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.10.006.

Jantra, C., D.C. Slaughter, P.S. Liang, S. Pathaveerat.  2017.  Nondestructive determination of dry matter and soluble solids content in dehydrator onions and garlic using a handheld visible and near infrared instrument.  Postharvest Biology and Technology.  133: 98-103. (November)

Escribano, S. W.V. Biasi, R. Lerud, D.C. Slaughter, and E.J. Mitcham.  2017.  Non-destructive prediction of soluble solids and dry matter content using NIR spectroscopy and its relationship with sensory quality in sweet cherries.  Postharvest Biology and Technology. 128:112-120. (June)

Xiaotuo, W., G.G. Atungulu, R. Khir, G. Zhenjiang, P. Zhongli, S.A. Wilson, G. Olatunde, and D. Slaughter.  2017.  Sorting in-shell walnuts using near infrared spectroscopy for improved drying efficiency and product quality.  International Agricultural Engineering Journal.  26(1): 165-172. (April)

Martinez-Guanter, J., M. Garrido-Izard, C. Valero, D. C. Slaughter, and M. Perez-Ruiz. 2017. Optical Sensing to Determine Tomato Plant Spacing for Precise Agrochemical Application: Two Scenarios. Sensors 17(5): 1096 (May)

Doan, H.K., K. Perez, R.M. Davis, and D.C. Slaughter.  2016.  Survey of Molds in California Processing Tomatoes.  J. of Food Science.  81(11):M2785-2792.

Fennimore, S.A., D.C. Slaughter, M.C. Siemens, R.G. Leon, and M.N. Saber.  2016.  Technology for Automation of Weed Control in Specialty Crops.  Weed Technology (doi: 10.1614/WT-D-16-00070.1)

Shiu, J.W., D.C. Slaughter, L.E. Boyden, D.M. Barrett. 2016. Correlation of Descriptive Analysis and Instrumental Puncture Testing of Watermelon Cultivars. J. food Sci. 18(6):S1506-S1514.

Nguyen, T.T., D.C. Slaughter, J.N. Maloof, and N. Sinha.  2016.  Plant phenotyping using multi-view stereo vision with structured lights.  Proc. SPIE 9866, Autonomous Air and Ground Sensing Systems for Agricultural Optimization and Phenotyping, 986608 (May 17, 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2229513

Shiu, J.W., D.C. Slaughter, L.E. Boyden, D.M. Barrett.  2015.  Effect of the shear-to-compressive force ratio in puncture tests quantifying watermelon mechanical properties.  J. of Food Engineering 150:125-131.

Liang, PS., Slaughter, D.C., Ortega-Beltran, A., Michailides, T.J. 2015. Detection of fungal infection in almond kernels using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. BIOSYSTEMS ENGINEERING 137: 64-72.

Nguyen, T.T., Slaughter, D.C., Max, N., Maloof, J.N., Sinha, N. 2015. Structured Light-Based 3D Reconstruction System for Plants. SENSORS 15(8):18587-18612.

Nguyen, T.T., Slaughter, D.C., Hanson, B.D., Barber, A., Freitas, A., Robles, D., Whelan, E. 2015. Automated Mobile System for Accurate Outdoor Tree Crop Enumeration Using an Uncalibrated Camera. 15(8): 18427-18442.

Perez-Ruiz, M., D.C. Slaughter, F.A. Fathallah, C.J. Gliever, B.J. Miller. 2014. Co-robotic intra-row weed control system. Biosystems Engineering 126:45-55.

Garrido, M., Perez-Ruiz, M., Valero, C., Gliever, C.J., Hanson, B.D., Slaughter, D.C., 2014. Active Optical Sensors for Tree Stem Detection and Classification in Nurseries. Sensors 14(6): 10783-10803.

Slaughter, D.C. 2014. The Biological Engineer: Sensing the Difference Between Crops and Weeds. Chapter 5 in S.L. Young and F.J. Pierce (eds.), Automation: The Future of Weed Control in Cropping Systems, DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-7512-1_5. Springer Science+Business Media, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 265p.

Dhillon, R. V. Udompetaikul, F. Rojo, J. Roach, S. Upadhyaya, D. Slaughter, B. Lampinen, K. Shackel. 2014. Detection of Plant Water Stress Using Leaf Temperature and Microclimatic Measurements in Almond, Walnut, and Grape Crops. TRANSACTIONS of ASABE. 57(1): 297-304. (doi: 10.13031/trans.57.10319).

Tiwari, G., D.C. Slaughter, and M. Cantwell. 2013. Nondestructive maturity determination in green tomatoes using a handheld visible and near infrared instrument. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 86: 221–229.

Slaughter, D. C.; Crisosto, C. H.; Tiwari, G. 2013. Nondestructive determination of flesh color in clingstone peaches. J OF FOOD ENGINEERING 116(4): 920-925

Nielsen, M., D.C. Slaughter, and C. Gliever. 2012. Vision-Based 3D Peach Tree Reconstruction for Automated Blossom Thinning. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS 8(1): 188-196.

Perez-Ruiz, M., D.C., Slaughter, C. Gliever, and SK Upadhyaya. 2012. Automatic GPS-based intra-row weed knife control system for transplanted row crops. COMPUTERS AND ELECTRONICS IN AGRICULTURE. 80: 41-49.

Perez-Ruiz, M., D.C., Slaughter, C. Gliever, and SK Upadhyaya. 2012. Tractor-based Real-time Kinematic-Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) guidance system for geospatial mapping of row crop transplant. BIOSYSTEMS ENGINEERING Volume: 111(1): 64-71.

Zhang, Y., D.C. Slaughter, E.S. Staab. 2012. Robust hyperspectral vision-based classification for multi-season weed mapping. J. of Photogrammetry And Remote Sensing. 69: 65-73   DOI: 10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2012.02.006.

Zhang, Y. E.S. Staab, D.C. Slaughter, D.K. Giles, and D. Downey. 2012. Automated weed control in organic row crops using hyperspectral species identification and thermal micro-dosing. Crop Protection 41: 96-105

Zhang, Y., and D.C. Slaughter. 2011. Hyperspectral species mapping for automatic weed control in tomato under thermal environmental stress. COMPUTERS AND ELECTRONICS IN AGRICULTURE 77(1): 95-104   DOI: 10.1016/j.compag.2011.04.001

Zhang, Y., and D.C. Slaughter. 2011. Influence of solar irradiance on hyperspectral imaging-based plant recognition for autonomous weed control. BIOSYSTEMS ENGINEERING 110(3): 330-339   DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2011.09.006

Haff, R. P.; Slaughter, D. C.; Jackson, E. S. 2011. X-RAY based stem detection in an automatic tomato weeding system. Applied Engineering In Agriculture   27(5): 803-810.

Perez-Ruiz, M., J. Aguera, J.A. Gil, and D.C. Slaughter. 2011. Optimization of agrochemical application in olive groves based on positioning sensor . Precision Agriculture. 12(4): 564-575.

Kitthawee, U., S. Pathaveerat, T. Srirungruang, and D. Slaughter. 2011. Mechanical bruising of young coconut. BIOSYSTEMS ENGINEERING 109(3): 211-219.

Padda, M., C.V.T. do Amarante, R.M. Garcia, D.C. Slaughter, and E.J. Mitcham. 2011. Methods to analyze physico-chemical changes during mango ripening: A multivariate approach. Postharvest Biology and Technology 62(3): 267–274.

Saha, R., NS. Raghuwanshi, SK Upadhyaya, WW Wallender, DC Slaughter. 2011. Water sensors with cellular system eliminate tail water drainage in alfalfa irrigation. CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE 65(4): 202-207   DOI: 10.3733/ca.v065n04p202

Downey, D., R. Ehsani, K. Giles, S. Haneklaus, D. Karimi, K. Panten, F. Pierce, E. Schnug, D.C. Slaughter, S. Upadhyaya, D. Wulfsohn. 2010. Advanced Engineering Systems for Specialty Crops: A Review of Precision Agriculture for Water, Chemical, and Nutrient Application, and Yield Monitoring. Landbauforschung – vTI Agriculture and Forestry Research, Special issue no. 340: 1-88.

Thornton, C.R., D.C. Slaughter, and R.M. Davis. 2010. Detection of the sour-rot pathogen Geotrichum candidum in tomato fruit and juice by using a highly specific monoclonal antibody-based ELISA. Int. J. of Food Microbiology 143:166–172.

Gonzalez, M.E., J.A. Jernstedt, D.C. Slaughter, and D.M. Barrett. 2010. Influence of Cell Integrity on Textural Properties of Raw, High Pressure, and Thermally Processed Onions. J. Food Sci. 75(7):E409-E416.

Gonzalez, M.E., J.A. Jernstedt, D.C. Slaughter and D.M. Barrett. 2010. Microscopic Quantification of Cell Integrity in Raw and Processed Onion Parenchyma Cells. J. Food Sci. 75(7):E402-E408.

Saha, R., S.K. Upadhyaya, W.W. Wallender, and D.C. Slaughter. 2010. Inverse solution of soil-water transport model parameters using response surface methodology. Trans. of the ASABE 53(4):1137-1145.

Sun, H, D.C. Slaughter, M. Perez Ruiz, C. Gliever, S.K. Upadhyaya, and R.F. Smith. 2010. RTK GPS mapping of transplanted row crops. 2010. Computers & Elec. in Ag. 71(1):32-37.

Obenland, D., D. Margosan, S. Collin, J. Sievert, K. Fjeld, M. L. Arpaia, J. Thompson, and D. Slaughter. 2009. Peel Fluorescence as a Means to Identify Freeze-damaged Navel Oranges. HortTechnology. 9(2): 379-384.

Wong, E.S., D.C. Slaughter, H. Wada, M.A. Matthews, K.A. Shackel. 2009. Computer vision system for automated cell pressure probe operation. Biosystems Engineering. 103(2): 129 – 136

Slaughter, D.C., M. Ruiz-Altisent, J. F. Thompson, P. Chen, Y. Sarig, M. Anderson. 2009. A handheld, low-mass, impact instrument to measure nondestructive firmness of fruit. Trans. of the ASABE. 52(1): 193-199.

Slaughter, D.C., D.K. Giles, S.A. Fennimore, R.F. Smith. 2008. Multispectral Machine Vision Identification of Lettuce and Weed Seedlings for Automated Weed Control. Weed Technol. 22:378–384

Kim, D.H., D.C. Slaughter. 2008. Image-based real-time displacement measurement system. Biosystems Engineering 101(4):388-395.

Slaughter, D.C., D.K. Giles, D. Downey. 2008. Autonomous robotic weed control systems: A review. COMPAG 61(1): 63-78.

Slaughter, D.C. D.M. Obenland, J.F. Thompson, M.L. Arpaia, D.A. Margosan. 2008. Non-destructive freeze damage detection in oranges using machine vision and ultraviolet fluorescence. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 48: 341–346

Rosa, U.A., K.G. Cheetancheri, C.J. Gliever, S.H. Lee, J. Thompson, D.C. Slaughter. 2008. An electro-mechanical limb shaker for fruit thinning. COMPAG 6(1):213–221.

Thompson, J.F., D.C. Slaughter, M.L. Arpaia. 2008. Suspended tray package for protecting soft fruit from mechanical damage. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. Vol. 24(1): 71‐75

Valero, C., Crisosto, C.H., D.C. Slaughter. 2007. Relationship between nondestructive firmness measurements and commercially important ripening fruit stages for peaches, nectarines and plums. Postharvest Biology and Technology 44: 248–253.

Crisosto, C.H., C. Valero, D.C. Slaughter. 2007. Predicting pitting damage during processing in Californian clingstone peaches using color and firmness measurements. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 23(2): 189-194.

Lam, Y., D.C. Slaughter, W.W. Wallender, S.K. Upadhyaya. 2007. Machine vision monitoring for control of water advance in furrow irrigation. Trans. of the ASAE. Vol. 50(2): 371−378.

Nielsen, M., H.J. Andersen, D.C. Slaughter, E. Granum. 2007. Ground truth evaluation of computer vision based 3D reconstruction of synthesized and real plant images. Precision Agric 8:49–62.

Slaughter, D.C., C.H. Crisosto, J.K. Hasey, J.F. Thompson. 2006. Comparison of Instrumental and Manual Inspection of Clingstone Peaches. Trans. of the ASAE. 22(6): 883-889.

Jahn, B.R., R. Linker, S.K. Upadhyaya1, A. Shaviv, D.C. Slaughter, I. Shmulevich. 2006. Mid-infrared Spectroscopic Determination of Soil Nitrate Content. Biosystems Engineering, 94 (4), 505– 515.

Haff, R.P., D.C. Slaughter, Y. Sarig, A. Kader. 2006. X-ray assessment of translucency in pineapple. J. Food Processing and Preservation 30:527-533.

Downey, D., T.G. Crowe, D.K. Giles, D.C. Slaughter. 2006. Direct nozzle injection of pesticide concentrate into continuous flow for intermittent spray applications. Trans. of the ASAE. Vol. 49(4): 865−873.

Monzon ME, Biasi B, Simpson TL, Johnson J, Feng X, Slaughter DC, Mitcham EJ. 2006. Effect of radio frequency heating as a potential quarantine treatment on the quality of ‘Bing’ sweet cherry fruit and mortality of codling moth larvae. Postharvest Biology and Technology 40(2): 197-203.

Gambhir, P.N., Y.J. Choi, D.C. Slaughter, J.F. Thompson, M.J. McCarthy. 2005. Proton spin – spin relaxation time of peel and flesh of navel orange varieties exposed to freezing temperature. J Sci Food Agric 85:2482 – 2486.

Christensen, L.K., S.K. Upadhyaya, B. Jahn, D.C. Slaughter, E Tan, D. Hills. 2005. Determining the influence of water deficiency on NPK stress discrimination in maize using spectral and spatial information. Precision Agriculture 6:539-550.

Nielsen M, H.J. Andersen, D.C. Slaughter, E. Granum. 2005. Ground truth evaluation of 3d computer vision on non-rigid biological structures. In: Stafford J (ed) Proceedings of the 5th European conference on precision agriculture, Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, pp. 549–556

Tan, E.S., D.C. Slaughter, and J.F. Thompson. 2005. Freeze damage detection in oranges using gas sensors . Postharvest Biol. Tech. 35 (2): 177-182

Crowe, T. G., D. Downey, D. Ken Giles, D. C. Slaughter 2005. An electronic sensor to characterize transient response of nozzle injection for pesticide spraying. Trans. of the ASAE. Vol. 48(1): 73-82.

Giles, D.K., Downey D., Slaughter D.C. 2004. Liquid property and nozzle effects on flight time of pulsed jet spray. Atomization and Sprays 14 (2): 111-126.

Downey, D., Giles D.K, Slaughter D.C. 2004. Pulsed-jet microspray applications for high spatial resolution of deposition on biological targets. Atomization and Sprays 14 (2): 93-109

Giles, D. K., D. Downey, D. C. Slaughter, J. C. Brevis-Acuna, W. T. Lanini 2004. Herbicide micro-dosing for weed control in field-grown processing tomatoes. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. Vol. 20(6): 735-743 .

Slaughter, D.C., W.T. Lanini, D.K. Giles. 2004. Discriminating weeds from processing tomato plants using visible and near-infrared spectroscopy Trans. of the ASAE. Vol. 47(6): 1907-1911 .

Crisosto, C.H., D. Slaughter, and D. Garner. 2004. Developing maximum maturity indices for “tree ripe” fruit. Advances in Horticultural Sci. 18(1):29-32.

Lee, W.S., and D.C. Slaughter. 2004. Recognition of partially occluded plant leaves using a modified watershed algorithm. Trans. of the ASAE. Vol. 47(4): 1269-1280 .

Giles, D.C. Slaughter, D. Downey, J.C. Brevis-Acuna, W.T. Lanini. 2004. Application design for machine vision guided selective spraying of weeds in high value crops. Aspects of Applied Biology. 71(1): 75-81.

Haff, R.P., and D.C. Slaughter. 2004. Real-time x-ray inspection of wheat for infestation by the granary weevil, Sitophilus Granarius (L.). Trans. of the ASAE. Vol. 47(2): 531-537.

Downey, D., D.K. Giles and D.C. Slaughter. 2004. Weeds accurately mapped using DGPS and ground based vision identification. California Agriculture. 58(4):218-221.

Slaughter, D.C., and J.A. Abbott. 2004. Analysis of Fruits and Vegetables. In Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Agriculture. Agronomy Monograph No. 44. Am. Soc. of Agronomy, Crop Sci. Soc. of Am. Soil Sci. Soc. of Am. Madison, WI, USA.

Abdel-Fattah, H.M., K.A. Shackel, and D.C. Slaughter. 2003. Substantial vertical tree displacements occur during almond shaker harvesting. Appl Eng Agric 19 (2): 145-150.

Abdel-Fattah, H.M., K.A. Shackel, and D.C. Slaughter. 2003. Methodology for determining almond shaker displacement and frequency. Appl Eng Agric 19 (2): 141-144.

Gillis, K.P., D.K. Giles, and D.C. Slaughter. 2003. Injection mixing system for boomless, target-activated herbicide spraying. Trans. of ASAE. 46 (4): 997-1008.

Slaughter, D.C., J.F. Thompson, and E.S. Tan. 2003. Nondestructive determination of total and soluble solids in fresh prune using near infrared spectroscopy. Postharvest Biol. Tech. 28 (3): 437-444.

Giles, D. K., D. C. Slaughter, and S. K. Upadhyaya. 2002. Biological target sensing and sprayer control. Aspects of Applied Biology 66:129-138.

Lamm, R. D. D. C. Slaughter, and D. K. Giles. 2002. Precision weed control system for cotton. Trans. of the ASAE. 45(1):231-238.

Potts, S. J., D. C. Slaughter, and J. F. Thompson. 2002. Measuring mold infestation in raw tomato juice. Journal of Food Science 67(1): 321-325.

Ehsani, M. R., S. K. Upadhyaya, W. R. Fawcett, L. V. Protsailo, and D. Slaughter. 2001. Feasibility of detecting soil nitrate content using a mid-infrared technique. Trans. of the ASAE. 44(6): 1931-1940.

Slaughter, D. C., M. G. Pelletier, and S. K. Upadhyaya. 2001. Sensing soil moisture using NIR spectroscopy. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 17(2): 241-247.

Potts, S. J., J. F. Thompson, and D. C. Slaughter. 2001. The effect of fungal species on the fluorescent lectin test. Journal of Microbiological Methods 46:187-191.

Potts, S. J., D. C. Slaughter, and J. F. Thompson. 2000. A fluorescent lectin test for mold in raw tomato juice. Journal of Food Science 65(2): 346-350.

Slaughter, D. C., C. G. Cavaletto, L. D. Gautz, and R. E. Paull. 1999. Non-destructive determination of soluble solids in papayas using near infrared spectroscopy. Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy 7:223-228. (In Press last action)

Slaughter, D. C., P. Chen, and R. G. Curley. 1999. Vision guided precision cultivation. Precision Agriculture 1(2): 199-216.

Ehsani, M. R., S. K. Upadhyaya, D. Slaughter, S. Shafii, and M. Pelletier. 1999. A NIR technique for rapid determination of soil mineral nitrogen. Precision Agriculture 1(2): 217-234.

Lee, W. S., D. C. Slaughter, and D. K. Giles. 1999. Robotic weed control system for tomatoes. Precision Agriculture 1(1): 95-113.

Slaughter, D. C., D. K. Giles, and C. Tauzer. 1999. Precision offset spray system for roadway shoulder weed control. ASCE Journal of Transportation Engineering. 125(4): 364-371.

Tian, L. F., and D. C. Slaughter. 1998. Environmentally adaptive segmentation algorithm for outdoor image segmentation. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 21:153-168.

Sebben, E., D. C. Slaughter, and R. P. Singh. 1998. Optical assessment of corn oil deterioration during frying. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 22(4): 265-282.

Slaughter, D. C., and C. H. Crisosto. 1998. Nondestructive internal quality assessment of kiwifruit using near-infrared spectroscopy. Seminars in Food Analysis 3:131-140.

Slaughter, D. C., J. F. Thompson, and R. T. Hinsch. 1998. Packaging Bartlett pears in polyethylene film bags to reduce vibration injury in transit. Trans. of the ASAE. 41(1): 107-114.

Li, M., D. C. Slaughter, and J. F. Thompson. 1997. Optical chlorophyll sensing system for banana ripening. Postharvest Biology and Technology 12:273-283.

Tian, L., D. C. Slaughter, and R. F. Norris. 1997. Outdoor field machine vision identification of tomato seedlings for automated weed control. Trans. of the ASAE. 40(6): 1761-1768.

Giles, D. K., and D. C. Slaughter. 1997. Precision band spraying with machine-vision guidance and adjustable yaw nozzles. Trans. of the ASAE. 40(1): 29-36.

Lee, W. S., D. C. Slaughter, and D. K. Giles. 1996. Development of a machine vision system for weed control using precision chemical application. Proceedings of International Conference on Agricultural Machinery Engineering ‘96, Seoul, Korea. pp. 802-811.

Pearson, T. C., D. C. Slaughter, and H. E. Studer. 1996. Hull adhesion characteristics of early-split and normal pistachio nuts. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 12(2): 219-221.

Slaughter, D. C., D. Barrett, and M. Boersig. 1996. Nondestructive determination of soluble solids in tomatoes using near infrared spectroscopy. Journal of Food Science 61(4): 695-697.

Vijayan, J., D. C. Slaughter, and R. P. Singh. 1996. Optical properties of corn oil during frying. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 31:353-358.

Luvisi, D. A., H. H. Shorey, J. F. Thompson, T. Hinsch, and D. C. Slaughter. 1995. Packaging California table grapes. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 1934. 15 pages including 9 figures and 10 tables.

Pearson, T. C., and D. C. Slaughter. 1996. Machine vision detection of early split pistachio nuts. Trans. of the ASAE. 39(3): 1203-1207.

Slaughter, D. C. 1995. Nondestructive determination of internal quality in peaches and nectarines. Trans. of the ASAE. 38(2): 617-623.

Pearson, T. C., D. C. Slaughter, and H. E. Studer. 1994. Physical properties of pistachio nuts. Trans. of the ASAE. 37(3): 913-918.

Hinsch, R. T., D. C. Slaughter, W. L. Craig, and J. F. Thompson. 1993. Vibration of fresh fruits and vegetables during refrigerated truck transport. Trans. of the ASAE. 36(4): 1039-1042.

Slaughter, D. C., R. T. Hinsch, and J. F. Thompson. 1993. Assessment of vibration injury to Bartlett pears. Trans. of the ASAE. 36(4): 1043-1047.

Massie, D., D. Slaughter, J. Abbott, and W. Hruschka. 1993. Acoustic, single-kernel wheat hardness. Trans. of the ASAE. 36(5): 1393-1398.

Slaughter, D. C., K. H. Norris, and W. R. Hruschka. 1992. Quality and classification of hard red wheat. Cereal Chemistry 69(4): 428-432.

Harrell, R. C., P. D. Adsit, R. D. Munilla, and D. C. Slaughter. 1990. Robotic picking of citrus. Robotica 8:269-278.

Norris, K. H., W. R. Hruschka, M. M. Bean, and D. C. Slaughter. 1989. A definition of wheat hardness using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Cereal Foods World 34(9): 696,698,701,703-705.

Slaughter, D. C. 1989. Guide to wheat hardness. USDA-ARS Bulletin ARS-79, Beltsville, Maryland. 90 pp.

Slaughter, D. C., and R. C. Harrell. 1989. Discriminating fruit for robotic harvest using color in natural outdoor scenes. Trans. of the ASAE. 32(2): 757-763.

Harrell, R. C., D. C. Slaughter, and P. D. Adsit. 1988. Robots in agriculture. International Encyclopedia of Robots. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 1378-1387.

Webb, J. C., D. C. Slaughter, and C. A. Litzkow. 1988. Acoustical system to detect larvae in infested commodities. Florida Entomologist 71(4): 492-504.

Webb. J. C., C. A. Litzkow, and D. C. Slaughter. 1988. A computerized acoustical larval detection system. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 4(3): 268-274.

Slaughter, D. C., and R. C. Harrell. 1987. Color vision in robotic fruit harvesting. Trans. of the ASAE. 30(4): 1144-1148.

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